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Phonetics: Особенности английской артикуляции.


Before you read the text, see if you know the answers to the following questions?


  1. Where is the UK situated?

  2. What is Great Britain?

  3. What seas is the UK washed by?

  4. What is the UK separated by from the Continent?

  5. What are the main countries of the UK?

  6. What are the capitals of the UK main countries?

  7. What is the population of the UK?

  8. What languages do people speak in the UK?

  9. What is the flag of the UK?

  10. What are the symbols of the UK main countries?

  11. What mountains, rivers and lakes of Great Britain can you name?

  12. What is the climate of Great Britain?




    1. Read the proper names paying attention to their pronunciation and the use of article. Be sure that you know Russian variants of these geographical names.

Anglesey [΄æŋglsi]

Belfast [bel΄fa:st]

Ben Nevis

Cardiff [΄ka:dif]

Caithness [

Cornwall [΄kɔ:nwɔ:l]

Edinbourgh [΄edinbərə]

England [΄inglənd]

France [΄fra:ns]

Glasgow [΄gla:zgəu]

Great Britain [,greit΄britn]

John o΄Groats [

the Highlands [΄hailəndz]

Ireland [΄aiələnd]

Logh Neagh [΄lɔk΄nei]

London [΄lʌndən]

Moume Mountains [΄mɔ:n΄mauntinz]

Northern Ireland [,nɔ:ðn΄aiələnd]

Penzance [

Scotland [΄skɔtlənd]

Snowdonia [snou΄dounjə]

the Atlantic Ocean [ət΄læntik ΄əu∫n]

the Celtic Sea [΄keltik΄si:]

the English Channel [,iŋgli∫΄t∫ænl]

the Firth of Clyde [,fə:θəv΄klaid]

the Hebrides [΄hebrədi:z]


the Humber Estuary [,hʌmbə΄estjuəri]

the Lake District [leik΄distrikt]

the North Sea [,nɔ:θ΄si:]

the Orkney Islands [,ɔ:kni΄ailəndz]

the Pennines [΄penainz]

the Severn [΄sevn]

the Thames [΄temz]


the Cumbrian Mountains [΄kʌmbriən΄mauntinz]

the Shetland Islands [,∫etlənd΄ailəndz]

the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

[juˌnaitid,kiŋdəməv,greit,britnən,nɔ:ðn΄aiələnd]


    1. Read the text Geographical outline OF THE UK and translate it into Russian.


Geographical outline OF THE UK

The total area of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is approximately 245000 km2 comprising of the island of Great Britain, the northeastern one-sixth of the island of Ireland (Northern Ireland) and smaller islands. It lies between the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea to the northwest from the coast of France. It is separated from France by the English Channel. The Royal Greenwich Observatory, near London, is the defining point of the Prime Meridian. When measured directly north-south, Great Britain is a little over 1100 km in length and is a fraction under 500 km at its widest, but the greatest distance between two points is 1350 km between Land's End in Cornwall (near Penzance) and John o' Groats in Caithness (near Thurso). Northern Ireland shares a 360 km on land boundary with Ireland.


The United Kingdom has a temperate climate, with plentiful rainfall all year round. The temperature varies with the seasons but seldom drops below 10°C or rises above 35°C. The prevailing wind is from the southwest, bearing frequent spells of mild and wet weather from the Atlantic Ocean. Eastern parts are most sheltered from this wind and are therefore the driest. Atlantic currents, warmed by the Gulf Stream, bring mild winters, especially in the west, where winters are wet, especially over high ground. Summers are warmest in the south east of England, being closest to the European mainland, and coolest in the north. Snowfall can occur in winter and early spring, though it rarely settles to great depth away from high ground.

England accounts for just over half of the total area of the UK, covering 130410 km2. Most of the country consists of lowland and mountainous terrain. Mountain chains are found in the north-west (the Cumbrian Mountains of the Lake District), north (the upland moors of the Pennines and limestone hills of the Peak District) and south-west (Exmoor and Dartmoor). Lower ranges include the limestone hills of the Isle of Purbeck, Cotswolds and Lincolnshire Wolds, and the chalk downs of the Southern England Chalk Formation. The main rivers and estuaries are the Thames, the Severn and the Humber Estuary. England's highest mountain is Scafell Pike, which is in the Lake District 978 m. England has a number of large towns and cities and, in terms of Larger Urban Zones, has six of the top 50 Zones in the European Union.


Scotland accounts for about a third of the total area of the UK, covering 78772 km2. The faultline separates two distinctively different regions; namely the Highlands to the north and west and the lowlands to the south and east. The more rugged Highland region contains the majority of Scotland's mountainous terrain, including the highest peak, Ben Nevis, 1344 m. The Lowland areas, in the southern part of Scotland, are flatter and home to most of the population, especially the narrow waist of land between the Firth of Clyde and the Firth of Forth known as the Central Belt. Glasgow is the largest city in Scotland, although Edinburgh is the capital and political centre of the country. Scotland also has nearly eight hundred islands, mainly west and north of the mainland, notably the Hebrides, the Orkney Islands and the Shetland Islands.

Wales accounts for less than a tenth of the total area of the UK, covering 20758 km2. Wales is mostly mountainous, though south Wales is less mountainous than north and mid Wales. The main population and industrial areas are in south Wales, consisting of the coastal cities of Cardiff, Swansea and Newport and the South Wales Valleys to their north. The highest mountains in Wales are in Snowdonia, and include Snowdon, which, at 1,085 m (3,560 ft) is the highest peak in Wales. The 14 (or possibly 15) Welsh mountains over 3,000 feet (914 m) high are known collectively as the Welsh 3000s. Wales borders England to the east and the sea in the other three directions: the Bristol Channel to the south, the Celtic Sea to the west, and the Irish Sea to the north. Wales has over 1,200 km (750 miles) of coastline. There are several islands off the Welsh mainland, the largest of which is Anglesey in the northwest.


Northern Ireland accounts for just 14160 km2 and is mostly hilly. It includes Lough Neagh, 388 km2, the largest body of water in the UK and Ireland. The highest peak is Slieve Donard 849 m in the province's Mourne Mountains.

Vocabulary on the text

account, v – (for) входить во (что-л.) в размере, количестве; составлять (определённую) часть от общего количества (чего-л.)

approximately, adv. – приблизительно, около, почти (Syn: about, roughly, almost, nearly) (Ant: exactly, precise)

bear (bore, born), v – носить, нести; переносить. (Syn: carry)

border, v (smth) граничить; находиться рядом. (Syn: verge)

boundary, n – (with) граница (Syn: border, frontier)

coast, n – 1) морское побережье (Syn: shore, seashore)

coastal, adj. – 1. береговой, прибрежный

comprise, v – 1) включать (Syn: include), 2) составлять (Syn: compose, constitute)

consist, v – (of) состоять, быть составленным из (чего-л., кого-л.)


estuary, n – эстуарий, дельта; устье реки

faultline, n – линия сброса (породы); линия активного нарушения

lie (lay, lain), v – 1) быть расположенным, простираться (Syn: sit, extend), 2) находиться (Syn: sit)

limestone, n – известняк

lowland, n – 1) низкая местность, низина, долина 2) (the Lowlands) южная часть Шотландии (менее гористая, чем северная)

mountainous, adj. – гористый (Syn: hilly)

notably, adv. – особенно, в особенности, больше всего

occur, v – происходить, случаться, совершаться (Syn: happen)

plentiful, adj. –изобилующий, изобильный, обильный. (Syn: prevalent, abundant, rich)

prevailing, adj. – господствующий, превалирующий, доминирующий, преобладающий (Syn: outstanding, predominant, prevalent)

range, v – 1) выстраивать в ряд; ставить, располагать в порядке. (Syn: arrange) 2) простираться, тянуться (вдоль чего-л.) 3) колебаться в известных пределах.

share, v – разделять (что-л. с кем-л.); использовать совместно


shelter, v защищать, спасать, укрывать (Syn: protect)

spell, n (of) промежуток времени, срок, период (чего-л.) (Syn: period, stretch)

temperate, adj. – умеренный (о климате и т.п.) temperate zone — умеренный пояc

terrain, n – местность, территория, район hilly terrainхолмистая местность; mountainous terrain — гористая местность; smooth terrain — равнинная местность (Syn: region, district)

therefore, conj. – по этой причине; вследствие этого; поэтому, следовательно. (Syn: consequently, and so)

topography, n –географические и геометрические особенности местности

waist, n – сужение, суженная часть, перехват; горловина

a fraction under – чуть меньше

a little over – чуть больше

Phonetic and lexical exercises

3. Pronounce the following words paying attention to the pronunciation of ending -(e)s.


islands – parts

cities – points

oceans – peaks

halves – half

areas – tops

regions – rocks

lie – lies

spell – spells

include – includes

contain – contains

border – borders


drop - drops

account - accounts

consist - consists

separate - separates



4. Pronounce the following words paying attention to the short and long vowels.


[ a: - ʌ]

[ɔ: - ɔ]

[i: - i]

[u: - u]

large – number

France – industrial

part – gulf

north – drop

chalk – topography

border – province

sea – little

feet – direction


include – took



5. Pronounce the following words. Pay attention to the pronunciatiation of the italicized letters.

length w
ide boundary

depth
between observatory

north w
ind approximately

th
ird west temperate

south winter geological

northern waist

southern northwest

although

therefore
Grammar exercises

6. Read the following numerals:

1) 500; 360; 388; 245,000; 78,772; 1,200; 130,410; 5,777,289.


2) 2002; 1215; 1994; 1264; 1679; 1496.

3) 1/5; 1/7; 3/8; 4/7; 2/7.

4) 2.75; 45.18; 31.67; 21.5; 17.25.

5) 58,4 миллионов; 242,5 тыс. кв. км; 1,5%; 9,7 миллионов посетителей.
7. Use the verb “to be” in the proper form.

1. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland … washed by the North Sea, the Irish Sea, the Atlantic Ocean.

2. The most famous educational centres … Oxford and Cambridge.

3.There … three main political parties in Great Britain.

4. Wales … one of the big mining districts in the country.

5. Long before our era the island … inhabited by the Celtic tribes.

6. Trafalgar Square … one of London’s sights . It … named in the memory of Admiral Nelson’s victory at the battle of Trafalgar in 1805.

7. There … a lot of rivers in GB. The Severn … the longest river.

8. The scientists suppose that the climate … warmer in some decades.
8. Make the following sentences negative and interrogative. Ask special questions about the words in italics.

1. GB is situated on the British Isles.

2. The highest mountain in Great Britain is Ben Nevis.

3. The main branches of British economy are engineering, mining, ship-building, textile, chemistry and food processing.

4. The power of the Queen is limited by the Parliament.

5. Buckingham Palace was built in the 18-th century.

6. Snowdon is 1, 085 m.

7. Edinburgh is the capital of Scotland.
9. Define the meaning of the verb “to be”.

1. The UK is made up of four countries: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland.

2. The weather is the favorite conversational topic in GB.

3. Romans, Angels, Saxons, Vikings were the first inhabitants of the British Isles.

4. There are no big rivers in Great Britain.


5. London was founded by the Romans.

6. Ship-building is of great importance for Great Britain.

7. They are to begin this work at once.
10. Translate the following verbs into English. Give their four forms.

Be, lie, separate, have, vary, rise, bear, bring, consist, find, include, know, account,

comprise, drop, occur, spell, distinguish, find, measure.
11. Explain the use of the Indefinite Tenses in the following sentences.

1. Charles Darwin is the greatest English writer.

2. He was born in Britain in 1809.

3. In 2059 it will be his 250ßth anniversarу.
12. Give the plural of the following nouns. Translate them into Russian.

Area, island, boundary, wind, part, country, range, city, centre, sea, mountain.
13. Make the following sentences negative and interrogative.

1. The UK lies between the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea to the northwest from the coast of France.

2. The UK has a temperate climate.

3. The Cambrian Mountains occupy the greater part of Wales.

4. Scotland became a part of the UK in 1707.

5. England and Wales were formally united in 1536.

6. In the уear of 2050 people will visit the British Isles as thez do now.
14. Complete the following sentences using Present Indefinite, Past indefinite and Future Indefinite.

1. The British Isles (to include) Great Britain, Ireland and a number of smaller islands.

2. Great Britain (to consist) of England, Scotland and Wales.

3. The UK (to be) an island state.

4. The Irish Sea (to separate) Great Britain from Ireland.

5. In ten years’ time everything probably (to be) different.

6. The larger part of Ireland (to gain) the status of a British dominion in 1921.

7. Around 10,000 years ago Great Britain (not, to be) an island, but an upland region of northwestern Europe.


8. London (to be) a very old city. It (to be) founded in A.D. 43. It (to be) … 2000 years old in 2043.

9. The train (to leave) Plуmouth at 11.30 and (to arrive) in London at 14.45.

10. We (to go) to the theatre the daz after tomorrow if we (to get) tickets.

11. Now Scotland (to be) a part of the UK. But many year ago it (to be) an independent state. After a long struggle it (to be) joined into the UK in 1707.

12. Every year the Festival of Music and Drama (to take place) in Edinburgh. The Festival (to be) first held in 1947. Next year it also (to take place) in the capital of Scotland.
15. Insert its or it’s.


  1. Scotland is famous for … beauty.

  2. You can’t see the top of this mountain from here because … so high.

  3. St. Paul’s Cathedral is in the City. … Beautiful columns can be seen above the high buildings.


16. Supply articles where necessary.

… Great Britain is situated on … British Isles. … British Isles lie to … west of the continent of … Europe. The total land area of … United Kingdom is 244,000 square kilometers. The western coast of Great Britain is washed by … Atlantic Ocean and … Irish Sea. The eastern coast is washed by the waters of … North Sea. … English Channel, which is 32 kilometers wide, separates the south-east of Great Britain from … France. Not far from the British Isles there is warm the Golf Stream. All these facts influence … climate of the country. The climate of Great Britain is mild, temperate and wet.
17. Insert prepositions.

Great Britain is one … the most densely populated countries … the world, the average density is over 200 people per square kilometer, 80 per cent of the population lives … towns. The population of Great Britain is more than 57 million. 57, 1 (1991)

The people who now inhabit the British Isles are descended mainly … the people who inhabited them nearly nine centuries ago. It is neither possible nor suitable to attempt here to estimate the relative importance of various people - pre-Celts, Celts, Romans, Anglo-Saxons and the Norsemen, including the Danes … the ancestry of the present English, Scots, Welsh and Irish. It is significant, however, that … most of England and the Lowlands of Scotland the language which soon came to predominate was English, mainly a marriage of Anglo-Saxons and Norman French, while the use … Celtic languages persisted … Wales, Cornwall, the Isle of Man, the Highlands of Scotland and in Ireland.

Vocabulary and Comprehension Exercises
18. Read the text and a) pick out all proper names and arrange them into two groups – nouns with the definite article and without it; explain the use of the article; b) pick out all the adjectives that go together with the following nouns: sea, lake, mountains, hills, area, climate, rainfall, terrain, district.
19. Give Russian equivalents.

Approximately; a fraction under; a little over; all year round; with the seasons; frequent spell of mild and wet weather; away from high ground; lowland and mountainous terrain; topography; distinctively different regions; namely; the narrow waist of land; notably; coastal city.
20. Give English equivalents. Consult the text if necessary.

Составлять; находиться; разделять; граница с; преобладать; быть защищенным от; составлять определенную часть; пересеченная местность; известняк; дельта реки; промышленный район; случаться, происходить; самая высокая точка; политический центр страны; изменяться в зависимости от сезона.
21. Supply the suggested adjectives.

chalk, plentiful, the warmest, limestone, the coolest, beautiful


  1. Cornwall is famous for its … cliffs.

  2. Peak District is famous for … hills.

  3. The UK is famous for … rainfall.

  4. The South-East of England is famous for … summers.

  5. The North of England is famous for … summers.

  6. Lake District is famous for … lakes.


22. Match the words from two columns to say what these places are famous for.

Model: London is famous for its places of interest.


1. London

a. the biggest airport in England

2. The Lake District

b. its places of interest

3. Oxford

c. its lakes and beautiful scenery

4. Heathrow

d. its 12th century university


23. Write what these cities are famous for.

Model: London is famous for its fine historical buildings.

  • Stratford-upon-Avon

  • Oxford

  • Cambridge

  • Liverpool

  • London

24. Complete the sentences using the information of the text.

1. The UK lies between … .

2. The UK is separated from … .

3. The UK occupies the territory … .

4. The climate of the country is … .

5. The country has such climate thanks to …

6. Mountains in England are …

7. Scotland occupies about …

8. There are two different regions in Scotland … .

9. The largest cities in Scotland are … .

10. Wales is mostly … .

11. The highest mountains in Wales are … .

12. In South Wales there are … .

13. Northern Ireland is … .


  1. Answer the questions. Begin your answer with the phrases suggested below.

The text tells the reader that…

I think…

I suppose…

If I got it right…

It seems to me that …

In my opinion …




  1. What is the total area of the UK?

  2. What islands does the UK consist of?

  3. Where is the UK situated?

  4. What climate does the UK have?

  5. Where are the warmest summers and coldest winters?

  6. Which part occupies over half of the total area of the UK?

  7. Which part occupies about a third of the total area of the UK?
  8. Which part occupies less than a tenth of the total area of the UK?


  9. What are the rivers of the country?

  10. What are the mountains in the country?


26. Agree or disagree. Make use of the conversational formulas given below.

Agreement Disagreement

I (quite) agree (with you). I don’t think so.

I think so too. I don’t agree.

Certainly! I think you are mistaken.

Just so. You are wrong.


  1. The UK is situated off the northwest coast of France.

  2. The UK is separated from France by the North Sea.

  3. The country is washed by the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans.

  4. The UK consists of four parts: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

  5. Great Britain is divided into two parts: England and Scotland.

  6. Southwest wind brings wet weather from the Atlantic Ocean.

  7. Strait of Dover is the narrowest part of the English Channel.

  8. The Irish Sea separates Great Britain from France.

  9. Scotland Includes both the Highlands and the Lowlands.

  10. Wales is a plain part in the country.


27. Arrange the sentences according to the text.

1. The largest part of the country is England.

2. There are the Cumbrian Mountains of the Lake District, the Pennines and Peak District in the North.

3. It is separated from the continent by the English Channel and is washed by the Atlantic Ocean.

4. It is divided into the Lowlands and the Highlands.

5. The smallest part, Northern Ireland, is mostly hilly with the highest peak Slieve Donard.


6. Wales occupies the western part of the country.

7. The largest city in Scotland is Glasgow, but the capital and the political centre is Edinburgh.

8. This part is lowland and mountainous terrain.

9. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland covers an area of about 245 thousand square kilometers.

10. The highest mountains are in Snowdonia with its peak Snowdon.

11. The second largest part is Scotland.

12. The climate in the country is temperate with enough rainfall all year round.
28. Match the part of the country with its description.

1. England; 2. Wales; 3. Northern Ireland; 4. Scotland


  1. It is in the western part of the country, between the Bristol Channel and the Dee estuary. It was united with England in the 14th century. It is home to the highest mountain in Britain, Mount Snowdon, which also lent its name to the Snowdonia National Park.

  2. It is the largest and most important part of Great Britain. It includes the capital city of London, which is the seat of national government. It was first settled by Celtic tribes 3000 years ago, then conquered by the Saxons, colonized by the Vikings and then overrun by the Normans.

  3. It is in the northern part of Great Britain. It had its own parliament until 1704 when it was united with the Kingdom of England and Wales to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. People are also special men: very proud of their culture and the Celtic language – Gaelic – and try to preserve their distinct culture as much as possible.
  4. It consists of six counties that decided to remain in union with Great Britain, while the remaining 26 counties chose autonomy. The capital of the country is Belfast and it has its own parliament, while, at the same time, its members also sit in the British Parliament.



29. Fill in the chart. Use the information from text 1 and the exercises. If necessary, consult maps and encyclopedias.





The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

England

Scotland

Wales

Northern

Ireland

Total area













Mountains













Rivers













Lakes













Capital













Largest cities












30. Translate into English.

1. Озерный край Англии расположен на северо-западе страны. Это очень романтичное место, известное своими долинами, горами, озерами и водопадами.

2. Долины и луга Шотландии всегда привлекают множество туристов.

3. Туристы со всего мира приезжают полюбоваться на красоту шотландских пейзажей.

4. Оксфорд – старый университетский город. Он расположен в Центральных графствах (The Midlands) Великобритании к северо-западу от Лондона.

5. Пролив Ламанш отделяет Великобританию от Континента. Пролив неширокий, не более 32 километров.

6. Великобритания одна из наиболее густонаселенных стран мира.

7. Северная Ирландия была первой колонией Англии.
31. Ask your friend,

  • знает ли он официальное название Великобритании;

  • знает ли он, почему страну часто называют Англией;

  • знает ли он, из скольких частей состоит Объединенное Королевство;

  • знает ли он, сколько островов относится к Британским островам;

  • знает ли он самые большие из Британских островов;

  • что он знает о климате Великобритании.


Do you know that:
  • The British Isles haven't always been a separate part of Europe. Long time ago Britain was a part of the European continent. Then about ten thousand years ago during the end of the last Ice Age, when the climate grew warmer, new rivers and sees were formed Europe slowly moved into its present shape.





  • The British Isles include 5000 small islands and some of them appear and disappear during ebbs and tides.




  • The North Sea and the English Channel are also called the Narrow Seas because they are difficult for navigation as they are very shallow.




  • The Straight of Dover, the narrowest part of the English Channel which is 32 kilometers wide, presents three obstacles for swimmers: strong currents, icy water and a lot of medusas, whose cuts are as cuts of a knife.


32. Review the information you’ve got from Lesson 1. Summarize it using the suggested words and word combinations.

To be separated from, to be washed by, to border on, to account for, to consists of, to be situated, a temperate climate, wet weather, mold winters, mountain chains, the main rivers.




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