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LESSON 2. Government and politics
Grammar: Имя существительное. Род,число и падеж существительных. Артикль.
Phonetics: Понятие гласных и согласных звуков.
1. Read the text “ POLITICAL SYSTEM OF THE UK” and translate it into Russian.
POLITICAL SYSTEM OF THE UK
The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy with Queen Elizabeth II as head of state; the monarch of the UK also serves as head of state of fifteen other Commonwealth countries, putting the UK in a personal union with those other states. The Crown has sovereignty over the Isle of Man and the Bailiwicks of Jersey and Guernsey. Collectively, these three territories are known as the Crown Dependencies, lands owned by the British monarch but not part of the United Kingdom. They are not part of the European Union. However, the Parliament of the United Kingdom has the authority to legislate for the dependencies, and the British government manages their foreign affairs and defense.
The UK has fourteen overseas territories around the world, the last remaining territories of the British Empire. The overseas territories are not considered part of the UK, but in most cases the local populations have British citizenship and the right of abode in the UK. This has been the case since 2002. The position of Prime Minister, the UK's head of government, belongs to the Member of Parliament who can obtain the confidence of a majority in the House of Commons, usually the current leader of the largest political party in that chamber. The Prime Minister and Cabinet are formally appointed by the Monarch to form Her Majesty's Government. Though the Prime Minister chooses the Cabinet, and by convention HM the Queen respects the Prime Minister's choices. The Cabinet is traditionally drawn from members of the Prime Minister's party in both legislative houses, and mostly from the House of Commons, to which they are responsible. Executive power is exercised by the Prime Minister and Cabinet, all of whom are sworn into Her Majesty's Most Honorable Privy Council, and become Ministers of the Crown. "The Rt Hon" Gordon Brown MP, leader of the Labor Party, has been Prime Minister, First Lord of the Treasury and Minister for the Civil Service since 27 June 2007. The UK's three major political parties are the Labor Party, the Conservative Party, and the Liberal Democrats, winning between them 616 out of the 646 seats available in the House of Commons at the 2005 general election. Most of the remaining seats were won by parties that only contest elections in one part of the UK such as the Scottish National Party (Scotland only), Plaid Cymru (Wales only), and the Democratic Unionist Party, Social Democratic and Labor Party, Ulster Unionist Party. emulate, v ‒ имитировать, копировать, подражать (Syn: imitate, copy) term, n ‒ срок, определённый период; длительность, продолжительность term of office — срок полномочий (президента, сенатора и т. п.) (Syn: period, duration, length of time) 4. Pronounce the following words. Explain the use of the sounds [s] or [z].
8. Write the plural of the following nouns. Mind the spelling.
Country, source, election, hair, territory, judge, house, oversea, authority, difference, woman, half, boundary, lowland, foot, valley.
9. Fill in the blanks with the articles where necessary.
1). … British Parliament is … oldest in … world. It originated in … 12-th century. … British Parliament consists of … House of … Lords and … House of … Commons and … Queen as its … head. … main functions of … Parliament are: to pass laws; to provide, by voting taxation, … means of carrying on the work of government. … House of … Commons plays … role in law-making. Parliamentary elections are held every 5 years and it is … Prime Minister who decides on the exact day of … election. … leader of … party which wins … majority of seats usually becomes … Prime Minister. … Prime Minister’s Office is situated at … 11 … Downing Street. When once a party has won a majority of votes, it forms the Government, and may hold office … five years, unless it is defeated … the Opposition on some important Bill, or unless it decides to "appeal … the country" and to have another general election. The British Government consists … the Prime Minister and other Ministers. The Cabinet meets … №10 Downing Street, the official residence of the Prime Minister. The Members of the Cabinet introduce legislation, control finance, arrange the time-table of the Houses of Parliament, conduct foreign affairs, dispose military forces and exercise control … every department of administration.
14. Answer the questions. Use the following expressions to begin your answer.
The text tells the reader that…
If I got it right…
It seems to me that …
In my opinion …
15. Complete the sentences using the information of the text.
1. The UK is a … .
2. The Queen is also … .
19. a) Make written translation of the text. Make use of the words given after it.
On the blessing of monarchy
The British monarchy. The sedate and dignified guards in red uniform, wearing black turban-like fur hats standing stock-still by Buckingham Palace, the Queen's main residence. The Queen stately visit to the inauguration ceremony of a Parliamentary session, with the traditional cuirassier mounted soldiers in glinting armor following the gilded coach upon prancing horses. The dismal Tower, the famous fortress-cum-prison, where some claimants to the throne used to languish, where Count Earl of Essex, and Anne Boleyn, the first wife of King Henry VIII, and some other notables were once beheaded. One cannot very well imagine the United Kingdom without the Royal palace and its trappings, and without the Gothic-style Westminster Abbey, the Parliament building on the Thames River. But all that is not just picturesque scenery, simply a tourist attraction, and those landmarks are not only relics of history. The monarchy is deeply rooted in country's life and politics, and in the mentality and psychology of its citizens.
According to the British Constitution, never recorded in a single volume, in its entirety,(it is in effect a code of fundamental acts of Parliament beginning with the Great Charter, or the Magna Carta, of 1215) the Queen of England is officially not only the Head of State but is also the protector of the Church of England. Furthermore, she is the supreme Commander-in-Chief of the country's Armed Forces.
Formally, a king, or a queen, has the right to dissolve Parliament and appoint a Prime Minister. (Incidentally, they have never once exercised that prerogative.) It goes without saying that real power is exercised by the Parliament and the government. 3. Государственный строй - парламентская монархия. Глава государства - королева Елизавета II (с 6 февраля 1952 года, династия Виндзоров). Законодательным органом является Парламент. Он состоит из Палаты лордов и Палаты общин. Правительство формируется лидером партии, получившей на выборах большинство мест и/или пользующейся поддержкой большинства депутатов в Палате общин; состоит из членов кабинета, министров, не входящих в состав кабинета, и младших министров (всего около 100 чел.). Монарх, не имеющий законодательной власти, выполняет представительские функции.
21. Ask your friend,
22. Review the information you’ve got from Lesson 2. Summarize it using the suggested words and word combinations.
The head of the state, the British Commonwealth, the powers of the Queen, to pass laws, to obtain the confidence, to be appointed by the Monarch, to be exercised by, to be the leader, legislative authority, an elected House of Commons, an appointed House of Lords, major political parties, to be set out in a single document, to accept Magna Carta, the Union Flag.
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