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практикум

по чтению текстов авиационной тематики (для студентов 1-го и 2-го курсов по специальностям ЛЭ, Вн, овд, ано)
Часть I

Составители:


Беляева С.А.


Паскевич Н.С.


Попова Г.В.


Предисловие


Данный практикум предназначен для студентов, приступающих к изучению профессионально-ориентированного авиационного языка. Все тексты и упражнения к ним направлены на развитие навыков чтения и понимания специальной литературы и документов ИКАО.

Практикум состоит из 2х частей.

Часть I включает тексты по общеавиационной тематике, лексические и грамматические упражнения к ним.

Часть II включает дополнительные тексты для чтения.

Оглавление


English as a world language and an International aviation language
English has become a world language because of its establishment as a mother tongue outside England, almost in all the continents of the world. This exporting of English began in the XVII-th century, with the first settlements in North America. Above all, the great growth of population in the United States together with massive immigration in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries has given the English language its present standing in the world. Besides, basic characteristics of English also contribute to the situation that nowadays it is the most spread language on Earth. These characteristics are: simplicity of forms (very few endings); flexibility (the same word can operate as some different parts of speech); openness of vocabulary (English words are frequently admitted by other languages). At present English is the language of business, technology, sport and aviation.

There are four working languages in ICAO – English, French, Spanish and Russian. But all meetings, conferences and assemblies are conducted in English and then all materials are translated into other languages. For this purpose ICAO has a special “Language and Publications Branch” with four sections.


The most urgent problem in aviation is safety. The progress in safety is achieved by intensive efforts in various spheres – engineering sciences, meteorology, psychology, medicine, economics and “last but not least” the English language. Insufficient English language proficiency often results in accidents and incidents. For example, the worst disaster in aviation history occurred in 1977 when two Boeings 747 collided at Tenerife, Canary Islands. The crew of Pan American 747 missed or misunderstood taxi instructions requiring a turn off the active runway. At the same time KLM 747 initiated a shrouded take off on the opposite direction. The two aircraft met on the active runway, with heavy loss of lives.

Between 1976-2000 more than 1100 passengers and crews lost their lives in accidents in which language played a contributory role.

Concern over the role of language in airline accidents brought real actions. So in March 2003 ICAO adopted Amendments to ICAO Annexes 1, 6, 10 and 11. These Amendments make clear and extend language requirements. In addition, they contain new more strict requirements for language testing.

Additional standards in Annex 10 demand to adhere (=follow) more closely to standard phraseology in all air-ground exchanges and to use plain language when phraseology is not sufficient. Phraseology alone is unable to cover all of the potential situations, particularly (especially) in critical or emergency situations. Therefore the PELA (Proficiency in English Language) test examines use of both ATC phraseology and plain English.
Exercises


  1. Ответьте на вопросы:




  1. When did the exporting of English begin?

  2. In what spheres of life is English most widely used?

  3. How many working languages are there in ICAO?

  4. In what language are meetings, conferences and assemblies conducted in ICAO?
  5. How is the progress in safety achieved?


  6. Could you explain why English language is so important in solving safety problem?

  7. What are ICAO real actions for improving English language proficiency?

  8. Will you describe the Amendments to ICAO Annexes adopted in 2003?

  9. What do additional standards demand?

  10. Can phraseology alone cover all of the potential situation in the air?

  11. What are the PELA test requirements now?




  1. Переведите слова, обращая внимание на словообразующие элементы:

establish – establishment

special – specially – specialist – speciality – specialize – specialization

urgent – urgency

safe – unsafe – safely – safety

achieve – achievement – achievable

vary – various – variously – variety – variant – variable – variability

sufficient – sufficiently – sufficiency

collide – collision

critical – uncritical – critically – criticize – criticism

require – requirement – unrequired

oppose – opposite – opposition – oppositionist

add – addition – additional – additionally

act – active – actively – activate – activity – action

heavy – heavily – heaviness

contribute – contributory – contribution

lose – loser – loss

strict – strictly – strictness

cover – coverage – discover – discovery

real – really – realist – realistic – realism – reality


  1. Переведите на английский язык:




        1. Каково население этого района?

        2. Когда появились первые поселения европейцев на этом континенте?

        3. Каковы основные характеристики английского языка?

        4. Они обсуждают вопрос о новых рабочих языках в ИКАО – арабском и китайском.

        5. Когда проводилась последняя ассамблея ИКАО?


        6. Кто переводил эти материалы на русский язык?

        7. Какова цель этой встречи?

        8. Есть какие-нибудь новые публикации по этой проблеме?

        9. Они достигли большого успеха в этой области.

        10. Большие усилия нужны для решения этой проблемы.

        11. Необходимо хорошо владеть английским, чтобы работать в международном аэропорту.

        12. Недостаточное владение экипажем английским языком привело к катастрофе.

        13. Катастрофа произошла над океаном.

        14. На какой высоте столкнулись самолеты?

        15. В этой катастрофе была большая потеря жизней.

        16. ИКАО примет новые поправки к Аннексам в следующем месяце.

        17. У нас достаточно топлива, чтобы лететь в Копенгаген.

        18. Мы должны владеть как радиотелефонной фразеологией, так и обычным английским.


FROM THE HISTORY OF AVIATION

Men have wanted to fly for more than two thousand years. Observations of flying birds gave man the idea of human flight. Every nation has many legends and tales about birdmen and magic carpets.

One of the most famous Greek legend is the legend of Daedalus and his son Icarus who made wings and fastened them on with wax. Daedalus landed in safety, Icarus was not so careful and he flew closer and closer to the sun. The wax melted, the wings came off and he fell into the sea.

The first scientific principles of human flight appeared in the 14-th century. The problem was studied by the great scientist Leonardo de Vinci. He observed the flight of birds, studied the air and its currents and designed a flying machine the wings of which were operated by a man.

But the first actual flight which man made was that in the balloon. In October 1783 the Montgolfier brothers in France sent two men almost 25 meters up in a balloon which descended 10 minutes later, about 2.5 kilometers away.


The first Russian aircraft designer was Alexander Mozhaisky. His airplane, a monoplane, with two light steam engines was tested on August I, 1882. With the first Russian pilot, I.N. Golubev the plane rose into the air and flew a distance of 200 metres before it landed.

At that time the same work was being conducted by Otto Lilienthal, a remarkable German inventor. In 1891 he made his flight in a glider covering 35 metres. In 1903 two Americans, the brothers Wilbur and Orville Wright, built their aeroplane. It flew only 32 metres but it was the first aeroplane with an internal combustion engine that was a big step forward.

In the following years aviation made big advances. In 1908 Henry Farman, in France, made a circular flight of one kilometre. A year later Bleriot crossed the English Channel. In 1913 a Russian student Lobanov invented aeroplane skis and this enabled to land and take off in winter.

In 1913 the Russian designer Igor Sikorsky built the world's first multiengined heavy aircraft. That same year the Russian pilot Nesterov executed the first loop. Another Russian pilot, Artseulov, in 1916 proved that a pilot can take his plane out of a corkscrew.

At the beginning of the 20-th century the dirigible was invented. The most known inventor of a dirigible is Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin, a retired German army officer. His famous "Graf Zeppelin" in 1929 began a cruise which took 21 days 8 hours and 26 minutes to circle the world.

An outstanding event in the history of aviation took place in Petersburg in 1913. That year a heavy multiengined aeroplane "Russky Vityaz» was constructed. It weighed 4,940 kg and had a 1,440 kg useful load. On August 2, 1913 with seven passengers on board it set up a world record by remaining in the air for 1 hour 34 minutes. Its top speed was over 90 km/hr.

In 1914 an improved version of the multiengined heavy bomber of the Ilya Murometz type was built. It weighed 3,000 kg and had a 1,760 kg useful load, a maximum cruising range of 700 km and a top speed of more than 110 km/hr.


Among the pioneers of aviation are the names of aircraft designers Tupolev, Polikarpov, Sukhoi, Arkhangelsky, Ilyushin, Yakovlev and others; the pilots Vodopyanov, Doronin, Kamanin, Lyapidevsky and some others - the first Heroes of the Soviet Union who were awarded this title for saving the passengers and the crew after ice-breaker Chelyuskin had been crashed by ice. In 1937 the world applauded the daring non-stop flight by Chkalov and his crew to the USA via the North Pole on the ANT-23. In 1938 Soviet aviatrixes Grisodubova, Raskova and Osipenko made a non-stop long-distance flight to the Far East and became the first Heroes of the Soviet Union among women.

And, of course, it is necessary to mention the names of the outstanding Russian scientists who considerably contributed aviation. It is the great Russian scientist M.V.Lomonosov who developed the scientific principles of flight of bodies heavier-than-air and built the first helicopter model in the world.

The Great Russian scientist D.I.Mendeleyev is the author of man outstanding researches in aeronautics. He developed the principles of the stratostat design with a pressurized cabin.

S.A.Chaplygin, the outstanding scientist in mechanics, is one of the founders of the modern aviation theory and the pioneer in aerodynamics of high speeds.

Special services in science belong to another famous scientist who is called "father of Russian aviation". And this is N.E.Zhukovsky. He was the first to develop a scientific wing theory and the principles of airscrew design. From that time aerodynamics has been a science combining theoretical knowledge with practical experiments. All modern aerodynamical calculations are based on his outstanding theoretical works.

N.E.Zhukovsky is the founder of the Central Aero-Hydrodynamic Institute (Z.A.G.I) which became the leading centre of the aeronautics and aeronautical engineering.

The rapid development of aviation began after the World War II. But this is another story.


Exercises


    1. Ответьте на вопросы:




  1. Was it interesting for you to read this text?

  2. Did you read about the history of aviation at school?

  3. When did the first scientific principles of human flight appear?

  4. Who was the first to study the problem of human flight?

  5. Describe the flying machine designed by Leonardo de Vinchi.

  6. What was the first actual flight man made?

  7. Why was it impossible to fly in a balloon?

  8. Who was the first Russian aeroplane designer?

  9. What plane was designed by him?

  10. What distance did the plane cover?

  11. Who designed the first glider?

  12. What is glider?

  13. What event took place in Petersburg in 1913?

  14. How long did “Russky Vityaz” stay in the air?

  15. Who is called “the father of Russian aviation”?




    1. Переведите слова, обращая внимание на словообразующие элементы:


observe – observer – observation

safe – safely – safety – unsafe

science – scientist – scientific

design – designer

fly – flight

invent – inventor – invention

construct – constructor – construction

improve – improvement

weigh – weight - weightless

develop – development


    1. Найдите в тексте эквивалент следующим словосочетаниям:


полет человека, поток воздуха, конструктор самолета, конструкция крыла, модель вертолета, мировой рекорд, максимальная скорость, беспосадочный полет, паровой двигатель, лыжи самолета.


    1. Переведите на английский язык:



  1. Научные принципы полета человека изучались великим ученым Леонардо де Винчи.


  2. Леонардо де Винчи изучал потоки воздуха и создал первую летающую машину.

  3. Первый фактический полет был сделан на воздушном шаре в 1783 г.

  4. Этот полет длился только 10 минут и высота полета была 25 метров.

  5. Первым русским конструктором самолета был Александр Можайский.

  6. Он сконструировал моноплан с двумя паровыми двигателями в 1882 году.

  7. Большим шагом вперед было создание первого самолета с двигателем внутреннего сгорания, сконструированного двумя американцами, братьями Райт.

  8. Ученые и конструкторы многих стран работали над созданием и совершенствованием летательных аппаратов.

  9. Первый в мире многомоторный самолет был сконструирован русским конструктором Игорем Сикорским.

  10. В начале 20го столетия был изобретен дирижабль.

  11. В 1913 г. в Петербурге был сконструирован тяжелый многомоторный самолет «Русский витязь».

  12. Полет «Русского Витязя» продолжался 1 час 34 минуты, его скорость была 90 км/час.

  13. В 1937 году русский летчик Чкалов со своим экипажем совершил беспосадочный полет в США через Северный полюс.

  14. Ломоносов построил модель первого вертолета.

  15. Менделеев разработал конструкцию стратостата с герметизированной кабиной.


INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATIONS

It is known that the pioneers of aviation were men of different nationalities and of many countries: Deadalus and Leonardo de Vinci, Lilienthal and Bleriot, Mozhaiski and the Wright brothers and others. So the aeroplane is a creature of no one country's knowledge and efforts. A peculiarity of air transport made it clear from the start that the development of aviation was impossible without international agreement. That's why the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) was created. It happened in 1944 at a conference of 52 nations held in Chicago. At present there are about 200 member States in ICAO. Its headquarters is in Canada, Montreal. The working languages of ICAO are English, French, Spanish and Russian. Russia has been the member of ICAO since 1970 .


It is very difficult to describe all of ICAO's activities. ICAO solves many problems on the international level. ICAO has a coordination agency. One of its purposes is to gather knowledge widely scattered among nations and to standardize the equipment and operational techniques used in air navigation in and over the territories of its member-states. The main task of ICAO is the flight safety. The aims of the Organization are spelt out in Article 44 of the Chicago Convention. These are to develop the principles and techniques of international air navigation, to plan and develop international air transport; to encourage the arts of aircraft design and operation for peaceful purposes; to encourage the development of airways, airports and air navigation facilities for international civil aviation, and so on.

To ensure the safe and efficient worldwide aviation operation ICAO has developed technical specifications forming the basis for uniform rules and procedures. Standardization affects the air-worthiness of aircraft, facilities and services required for aircraft operations elsewhere. These include: aerodromes, communications, navigational aids, meteorology, air traffic services, .search and rescue, information services. ICAO is doing much to make the air more clear. There are special standards to reduce noise by designing new quieter aircraft. ICAO has set up standards for air crew and controllers as well. IСAO is also doing much to prepare and train aviation specialists.

The second in its importance organization after ICAO for international civil aviation is IATA - International Air Transport Association founded in 1945. It is one of the international civil aviation organizations uniting world airlines. IATA is concentrated on the safety problem. Its main objective is to contribute to safe and regular development of civil aviation and to cooperation of world airlines. Its Technical Committee deals with the problem of safety, standardization of aviation equipment, training of flying personnel, communications, meteorology, aerodromes, navigational aids, etc. All IATA members report the data on flying, taxying and other ground incidents including maintenance deficiencies. Flight safety experts, aviation specialists and scientists of the member States investigate these accidents to prevent them in future. Russia is a member of IATA, it conforms to the IATA's standards, procedures and documents which is of great importance for studying and solving the problems which IATA deals with.


International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers' Association (IFATCA) was founded in 1961 with the purpose to enable the national associations to study and solve the problems for the development of air traffic control art and to create a better understanding among the controllers serving international aviation.

Eurocontrol is the European organization working for air navigation safety. It was created in 1963 for better service of European airspace. Some European countries have signed the agreement of cooperation for the safety of air navigation and organized common air traffic services in the upper airspace.
Exercises




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