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establish – establishment
special – specially – specialist – speciality – specialize – specialization
urgent – urgency
safe – unsafe – safely – safety
achieve – achievement – achievable
vary – various – variously – variety – variant – variable – variability
sufficient – sufficiently – sufficiency
collide – collision
critical – uncritical – critically – criticize – criticism
require – requirement – unrequired
oppose – opposite – opposition – oppositionist
add – addition – additional – additionally
act – active – actively – activate – activity – action
heavy – heavily – heaviness
contribute – contributory – contribution
lose – loser – loss
strict – strictly – strictness
cover – coverage – discover – discovery
real – really – realist – realistic – realism – reality
FROM THE HISTORY OF AVIATION
Men have wanted to fly for more than two thousand years. Observations of flying birds gave man the idea of human flight. Every nation has many legends and tales about birdmen and magic carpets.
One of the most famous Greek legend is the legend of Daedalus and his son Icarus who made wings and fastened them on with wax. Daedalus landed in safety, Icarus was not so careful and he flew closer and closer to the sun. The wax melted, the wings came off and he fell into the sea.
The first scientific principles of human flight appeared in the 14-th century. The problem was studied by the great scientist Leonardo de Vinci. He observed the flight of birds, studied the air and its currents and designed a flying machine the wings of which were operated by a man.
But the first actual flight which man made was that in the balloon. In October 1783 the Montgolfier brothers in France sent two men almost 25 meters up in a balloon which descended 10 minutes later, about 2.5 kilometers away. In 1914 an improved version of the multiengined heavy bomber of the Ilya Murometz type was built. It weighed 3,000 kg and had a 1,760 kg useful load, a maximum cruising range of 700 km and a top speed of more than 110 km/hr. The rapid development of aviation began after the World War II. But this is another story.
observe – observer – observation
safe – safely – safety – unsafe
science – scientist – scientific
design – designer
fly – flight
invent – inventor – invention
construct – constructor – construction
improve – improvement
weigh – weight - weightless
develop – development
полет человека, поток воздуха, конструктор самолета, конструкция крыла, модель вертолета, мировой рекорд, максимальная скорость, беспосадочный полет, паровой двигатель, лыжи самолета.
INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATIONS
It is known that the pioneers of aviation were men of different nationalities and of many countries: Deadalus and Leonardo de Vinci, Lilienthal and Bleriot, Mozhaiski and the Wright brothers and others. So the aeroplane is a creature of no one country's knowledge and efforts. A peculiarity of air transport made it clear from the start that the development of aviation was impossible without international agreement. That's why the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) was created. It happened in 1944 at a conference of 52 nations held in Chicago. At present there are about 200 member States in ICAO. Its headquarters is in Canada, Montreal. The working languages of ICAO are English, French, Spanish and Russian. Russia has been the member of ICAO since 1970 . The second in its importance organization after ICAO for international civil aviation is IATA - International Air Transport Association founded in 1945. It is one of the international civil aviation organizations uniting world airlines. IATA is concentrated on the safety problem. Its main objective is to contribute to safe and regular development of civil aviation and to cooperation of world airlines. Its Technical Committee deals with the problem of safety, standardization of aviation equipment, training of flying personnel, communications, meteorology, aerodromes, navigational aids, etc. All IATA members report the data on flying, taxying and other ground incidents including maintenance deficiencies. Flight safety experts, aviation specialists and scientists of the member States investigate these accidents to prevent them in future. Russia is a member of IATA, it conforms to the IATA's standards, procedures and documents which is of great importance for studying and solving the problems which IATA deals with.
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